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TERRIER DOG HEALTH and HOW TO TREAT EMERGENCIES

Anti-Freeze:
Streets and garages can prove the perfect home for collections of small puddles of anti-freeze. Dogs really like the sweet taste; they have been known to chew through plastic containers that hold anti-freeze.

Licking anti freeze, even a small amount, can be quite lethal. Just a teaspoon is enough to kill a small dog, so it doesnít take more than a few laps. A substance in the antifreeze (Ethylene glycol) slowly (about 3-7 days) causes kidney failure when the body converts it to a crystal that stops kidney function.

Many animals are poisoned after walking through antifreeze and then licking it from their paws. If you know that your dog has walked through spilled antifreeze, immediately give him/her a thorough bath, particularly the paws.

Many pets die or have to be euthanized because signs of antifreeze poisoning often don't show up for several days after they consume it.

If you see your pet drink antifreeze, or you think that itís possible your pet could have ingested it, don't wait to see if it gets sick. By the time you notice the animal is sick, it's often way too late to save it. If you are not sure whether your dog has ingested antifreeze, seek veterinary help immediately. If that is not possible, we have included at-home emergency treatment measures below.

Animals have just six to eight hours after they consume antifreeze for effective treatment; otherwise a slow, painful death is likely. The ideal treatment window is within the first four hours.


Symptoms of antifreeze poisoning:
Immediately recognizing the symptoms of antifreeze poisoning and treating within several hours after ingestion are crucial to recovery. Symptoms include:
ēDrunkenness: The dog may appear to be in a stupor, stagger, weave, and appear uncoordinated and disoriented.
ēListlessness: The dog may appear depressed.
ēThe dog may urinate frequently and will be excessively thirsty.
ēThe dog may vomit, though this might not be frequent or persistent.


Dogs or cats who drink some may, or may not, show a period of drunken like behavior and will then go into renal failure. This stage passes in a few hours and is easy to miss. Most people donít notice their petís distress until the animalís kidneys start to fail. Your dog should be treated immediately.


Early and aggressive treatment can save these patients and an antidote exists. In some cases, peritoneal or other dialysis is required. Left untreated, irreversible renal failure and death is to be expected. There are tests available, here, that can detect evidence that a dog or cat has ingested antifreeze.


There are two antidotes for antifreeze poisoning. The older treatment is more commonly practiced by veterinarians, as it is more economical. An animal is given ethanol, or grain alcohol, via an intravenous drip for two to three days. A drug called 4-methylpyrazole (Fomepizole) is the antidote, but it must be given (by the vet) within an hour or two of the poisoning.

Antifreeze is an alcohol which a particular enzyme in the body converts to toxic crystals. Giving the animal ethanol (bartender type alcohol), ties up the enzyme that converts the antifreeze to a kidney toxin.

The first thing to do is to induce vomiting. This is best done by giving the animal one teaspoon of 3 percent hydrogen peroxide per five pounds of body weight. This should cause vomiting within 10 minutes. The foaming action will trigger a gag reflex. You may repeat this procedure two or three times, waiting about five minutes between doses. The peroxide may work better if there is a little food in your dogs stomach, so try offering a small meal beforehand. If you do not have a needleless syringe, use a turkey baster to squirt the peroxide into the back of your dogs mouth. If he acts depressed or drunk, vomiting could cause dangerous problems, so get him to the vet immediately

If an animal is not treated for antifreeze poisoning, symptoms start showing up in about two to three days later, when it is too late to treat and reverse the damage, and the dog (or cat) usually only lives about a week.

In an extreme emergency, if it is absolutely impossible to get to a vet and you believe your dogís life is in immediate danger, you can Induce vomiting in your dog by giving them hydrogen peroxide.

Once vomiting has occurred, give your dog a shot (one ounce for large dogs and less for smaller dogs) of vodka or gin. The alcohol ties up the ethylene glycol so it doesnít precipitate into the kidneys. Give your dog one drink per hour until you can get to a vetís office. For smaller dogs, use a half a shot of alcohol.

Again, this treatment should only be given when you absolutely canít get to a vetís office. And under no other circumstances, except for anti-freeze poisoning, should dogs be given alcoholic beverages.


CHOCOLATE
Dogs with chocolate poisoning will exhibit signs of nervousness, hypertension, diarrhea, urinary incontinence (uncontrollable urination), panting, excitement, seizures or, in extreme cases, death.

Step One
Use these treatments if your dog is showing symptoms of having recently ingested a large amount of chocolate. However, avoid using these treatments on dogs that are having seizures. In either case, call or take the dog to the vet immediately.

Step Two
Make a 1-to-1 solution of 3 percent standard hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and water.

Step Three
Give your pet the appropriate amount: For every 10 lbs. of your dog's body weight, give 1 tbsp. peroxide/water solution. For example, a 20-lb. dog will need 2 tbsp. peroxide/water solution.

Step Four
Pour the peroxide/water solution into a turkey baster and squirt it into your dog's mouth to induce vomiting.

Step Five
Watch for vomiting.

Step Six
Wait another 10 minutes if the dog has not vomited in 5 minutes. If your dog has not vomited after the full 15 minutes, re-administer the peroxide/water solution using the same dosage.

Step Seven
Administer 1/4 tsp. ipecac to your dog as an alternative way to induce vomiting.

Step Eight
Avoid giving a third dosage of peroxide/water solution or ipecac if your dog still has not vomited, as that could be dangerous.

Step Nine
Call the ASPCA National Animal Poison Control Center at (888) 4ANIHELP or (800) 548-2423. Be prepared to pay a consulting fee.


Tips & Warnings

* Consult your veterinarian to learn the exact amounts of the emetics to use for your individual dog's size and weight.
* Although not all types of chocolate are equally harmful, they contain the alkaloids theobromine and caffeine, which can be toxic to dogs. A lethal dose for a 20-lb. dog requires 10,000mg of alkaloids.
* Baking chocolate has the highest alkaloid content and the highest potential to make your dog seriously ill. One oz. of baking chocolate has a 400mg alkaloid content, 1 oz. of dark chocolate has 150mg, and 1 oz. of milk chocolate has 50mg.

Poison control - 1-800-548-2423

If you suspect your pet has swallowed any poison get your pet to the vet ASAP!

 

Arsenic Poisoning

Arsenic is in many poisons for getting ants, rats, mice and slugs. needless to say this is dangerous and death can occur very quickly.

Treatment - Induce Vomiting and then get your pet to a veterinarian. ASAP!

Raisins and Grapes

Raisins and Grapes are dangerous and very toxic to dogs and can shut down their kidney's.. some dogs seem to tolerate smaller portions but beware!

 

Onions & Garlic

Small amounts onions and garlic can be tolerated but are indeed toxic for dogs and especially cats.
Chocolate Poisoning

Dogs love chocolate, but chocolate is dangerous to our pets. The alkaloid or Theobromide in chocolate makes chocolate dangerous. Chocolate is harmful but in different amounts depending on the type of chocolate. Baking chocolate for example has the highest alkaloid content which is 400 milligrams (mg) per ounce. Dark Chocolate has a content of 150 mg per ounce and milk chocolate has 50 mg per ounce.

Reference - A lethal dose for a 20 pound dog is 1,000 mg of alkaloid or the amount found in 2.5 ounces of baking chocolate.

Please be a responsible pet owner and do not leave chocolate candy where your dog can get into it.

Signs of chocolate toxicity increased heart rate, heavy panting, urinary incontinence, and seizures.

Treatment If you know your dog has eaten chocolate recently ( just got done eating), induce vomiting, if two hours have passed you can administer activated charcoal to prevent the toxin from being absorbed. GET YOUR PET TO THE VET!

DO NOT induce vomiting if your dog:

* Swallows an acid, solvent, or heavy-duty cleaner.
* Is severely depressed or comatose (they can inhale vomit into their lungs)
* Swallows a petroleum product
* Swallows Tranquilizers (which prevents vomiting);
* Swallows sharp objects (which can get lodged)
* Or if two or more hours have passed since the poison has been swallowed.

TO INDUCE VOMITING

* Syrup of ipecac -1/4 to 1 teaspoon per dose but no more than 2 doses.
* Hydrogen Peroxide 3% (standard)- Mix an equal amount with water, using a turkey baster as a applicator give about 1 teaspoon per 10 pounds of body weight. The dog should vomit within five minutes, if the dog does not wait another 10 minutes and give another dose. DO NOT give a third dose!
* Activated Charcoal - DO NOT give charcoal with SYRUP of IPECAC - available in capsule form from a health food store can be administered orally every four hours in two to several ounces of water. The recommended dosage is 0.45 to 1.8 grams for every pound of weight.
* One half to one teaspoon of salt, placed at the back of the tongue.

Dog Resuscitation and Artificial Respiration

* Feel for a heartbeat
* Open mouth and make sure the airway is clear of any objects.
* If you have difficulty getting to the object perform the Heimlich Maneuver, it actually does work on dogs too. .

If the air passage way is clear and the dog is not breathing use a Mouth-to-Nose Resuscitation Method:

* Pull the tongue forward, close the mouth and seal the lips with your hand.
* Place your mouth over the dog's nose and blow in steadily for three seconds. You will see the chest expand, release to let the air come out.
* Continue until the heart beats on its own

Always get your pet to the veterinarian ASAP


POISONING SYMPTOMS

insecticide (organo-phosphate) poisoning: salivation, excessive tears, diarrhoea, severe vomiting, constriction of the pupil, muscle twitching, asthmatic breathing, convulsion and coma. Treatment: an injection of atropine (one vial for a cat or small dog, two or three vials for larger dogs depending on their weight). The injection can be intravenous (into the vein - it is absorbed most quickly this way), intramuscular (into the muscle), or subcutaneous (under the skin).
*

rat poison (warfarincan): result in vomiting and diarrhoea, but sometimes the animal will display no symptoms at all for two to three days. Patches of red/purple/dark blue on the body or gums begin to develop later. These are signs of internal bleeding. Treatment involves an injection of vitamin K (Konakion) to help clot the blood - between 5mg and 20mg depending on the size and weight of the animal.
*

strychnine poisoning: animals that have been poisoned with strychnine go into spasm, their pupils expand and muscles twitch. Treatment is an injection of diazepan (Valium): cats 5-10mg, dogs 10-30mg depending on size and weight.

POISON CONTROL

Act immediately if you suspect your pet has been poisoned. Symptoms of poisoning range from drooling, muscle spasms, and difficulty in breathing to vomiting, shivering and panting, bleeding from orifices, swelling, convulsions and coma. If you have the container, check it for an antidote to the poison. Seek veterinary help immediately.

Inducing vomiting in your pet may or may not be appropriate. If you can see sores or swelling in or around your petís mouth or tongue do not induce vomiting. If you suspect a particular product has poisoned your pet, check the following lists:

Induce vomiting: acetone; alcohol, all types; antifreeze; ant poison; arsenic; aspirin (cats); crayons; Diazonon; dichlorvos; drugs; insecticides; lead; Malathion; rat poison; shoe cleaner; shoe polish; Tylenol (cats); Warfarin

Do NOT induce vomiting: alkalis; bleach; burnt lime; chemicals; cleaners; cleaning fluid; coal oil; fertilizers; fuel oil; furniture polish; gasoline; kerosene; paint thinner; pine oil; strychnine

The best choice for inducing vomiting is hydrogen peroxide, but salt or dry mustard will also work. Syrup of Ipecac will work, but may take up to 30 minutes or more. Retain any material your pet vomits so the vet can ascertain the type of poison ingested. Bring any packaging or container that may have contained the poison with you to the veterinarian.

Your pet may not want to swallow the substance that will induce vomiting. You can try to push a plastic eyedropper with hydrogen peroxide into the side of the animalís mouth or use a syringe with NO needle. If one substance doesnít cause vomiting, try the next.

Rinse off any poison that is on the animalís fur or skin. Donít use products like pHisoHex that are toxic when ingested and wear rubber gloves.

If the animal starts going into convulsions wrap him/her in a blanket or towel to prevent injury.

Even if you have successfully induced vomiting you should still use an antidote. Always contact your veterinarian for further treatment.

General Antidotes

Toxin Antidote Dosage

Acids

1. Milk of Magnesia dogs: 1 tsp per 5#, max. 8 tsp, one dose only (Cats: 1 tsp per 5 lbs body weight, one dose only.)

2. baking soda dogs/cats: 25 mg per pound every 8 hours.

Alkalis

1. vinegar dogs/cats: 1 - 5 tsp.

2. lemon juice dogs/cats: 1 - 5 tsp.

General Poisons

Prevent absorption

1. activated charcoal dogs: per 30#: 2 heaping Tbs in 4 oz. water or 6 tablets. (Cats: 1 heaping tsp in 1 oz water or 1 crushed tablet.)

2. Kaopectate dogs/cats: 1 tsp per 5# with large amounts of water or milk every 2 - 6 hours.

Speed through the intestines

Milk of Magnesia dogs: 1 tsp per 5#, max. 8 tsp, one dose only. (Cats: 1 tsp per 5#, one dose only.)

Dilute the poison - increase urination

large amounts of water, milk, or weak tea.

Coat the intestines - slow down absorption

1. milk or vegetable oil dogs/cats: 1 -3 Tbs.

2. Kaopectate dogs/cats: 1 tsp per 5# with large amounts of water or milk every 2 - 6 hours.

3. pink bismuth (Pepto Bismol) : Dogs: 1 tsp per 20# every 4 hours. (Cats: 1/2 tsp every 4 hours.)

Other Poisons:

Aspirin: Can cause severe bleeding, stomach upset, and other disorders. Very toxic to cats.

Chocolate: Chocolate contains xanthines, which are highly toxic to pets, especially small dogs. A 10 pound dog that eats a pound of chocolate can have a life-threatening reaction. Symptoms include excitability, restlessness, and muscle tremors. Breathing difficulties, seizures and coma may follow. There is no antidote. Induce vomiting and seek veterinary attention.

Flea Products: Any flea product containing organophosphates and carbamates including flea shampoos, powders, collars, sprays and dips can cause irregularities in the transmission of nerve impulses. Cats are very sensitive and dogs are slightly less sensitive -- although the amount used can be critical to toxicity. Using more than one method of flea control can be fatal -- dipping an animal and then putting a flea collar on, for example, may lead to illness or death. Symptoms include drooling, diarrhea, muscle tremors, lack of coordination, and breathing difficulties. Atropine is the antidote and should be given as early as possible. Bathe the animal (baby shampoo works well) thoroughly to remove the toxins.

Pyrethrins, a chrysanthemum derivative, are less toxic but some animal may react with symptoms like increased salivation, vomiting and depression. There is no antidote to pyrethrins -- call your vet if you suspect Pyrethrin poisoning.

Gopher Poison (Strychnine -- Causes seizures (not muscle tremors) and Snail/Slug Bait (Metaldehyde -- Causes muscle tremors): Within several hours of ingesting, muscle tremors (snail bait) or seizures (strychnine) will begin. Drooling and vomiting are common symptoms of snail bait ingestion. Extreme body temperature and liver damage may occur. There is no antidote. Sedate the dog until the poison has passed through the system. If caught early enough, the stomach can be pumped and activated charcoal may absorb some of the toxin.

Lead: May be found in wine bottle wrappers, batteries, caulking and plumbing materials. Symptoms develop gradually and include vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pains and lack of appetite and progress to disorientation, behavior changes, blindness and/or seizures. Lead in the stomach or intestines may show up on x-rays and prompt veterinary care can reverse most symptoms.

Motor Oil and petroleum products: Like antifreeze, these products are often ingested while an animal is grooming him/herself. Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, disorientation and seizures. Bathe with a non-toxic degreasing soap whenever your pet gets oily products on their coat -- before ingestion! If ingested, seek veterinary care.

Mushrooms: Some wild mushrooms can cause irreversible liver damage. Take a sample of the wild mushroom your pet has eaten with you to the veterinarian.

Tar and products such as creosote and tannic acid contain phenol. Although this product is not usually ingested it poisons animals the same way that antifreeze does. Symptoms of phenol poisoning include muscle tremors, breathing difficulties, depression and coma. There is no antidote -- Seek veterinary care immediately.

Plant intoxication: In most cases, an animal who has eaten any of the following plants should have his/her stomach pumped. almond - breathing difficulties; amaryllis - vomiting; apricot pits - stupor; buckthorn - vomiting; caladium - swelling; calla lily, elephantís ear, Jack-in-the-pulpit, skunk cabbage - immediate nausea; daffodil - diarrhea; English holly - abdominal pain; English ivy - immediate nausea; foxglove - abdominal pain; garden sorrel, glory lily - vomiting; honeysuckle - possible nerve involvement; horse chestnut - abdominal pain, diarrhea, immediate nausea; Jerusalem cherry - abdominal pain; lily of the valley - pupil dilation; mock orange - vomiting; mistletoe - irregular heartbeat; oleander - immediate nausea; peach pits - coma; poinsettia - possible kidney involvement; privet - delayed vomiting; rhubarb - diarrhea; wisteria, philodendron, dieffenbachia, holly - salivation; yew - vomiting.

Rat poison: Sweet taste is appealing to rats and dogs. Interferes with the proper clotting of the blood. Symptoms, which can take from five to 10 days to occur, include nosebleeds, blood in the urine or stool, vomiting with blood, and hematoma (red to purple lump - bruising). If you suspect your pet has eaten rat poison call your vet immediately.

Snakebites: All snakebites should be seen by a veterinarian. Poisonous snakebites leave a u-shaped tooth pattern with fang punctures that may bleed, emit a discharge and cause rapid swelling in the area of the bite. Swelling will increase to include the leg or muzzle where the bite occurred and the wound may turn purplish-blue. The bitten animal will be in pain and may try to bite.

Poisonous snakes have fangs, their heads are larger, their eyes are oval and there is a distinctive indentation behind the nostrils. (Except coral snakes who have small heads and round eyes, black noses and red, yellow and black rings around their bodies.)

If you think your pet has been bitten by a poisonous snake, muzzle him/her immediately. (The pain of the bite will increase and your animal will not allow you near). Carry the animal to the car and to the vetís office to keep the venom from traveling through his/her system. Antivenin must be given as soon as possible, so seek veterinary help immediately.
Tylenol (Acetaminophen): Tylenol is extremely toxic to cats. Seek veterinary help immediately. Feline systems do not make the enzyme needed to break down acetaminophen into harmless substances that can be eliminated. Toxic by-products build up and can be fatal.

Household products poisonous to pets:
antifreeze, aspirin, bleach, brake fluid, carburetor cleaner, cleaning fluid, crayons, deodorants, detergent, diet pills, disinfectants, dry shampoo, dye, engine lubricants, fire extinguishers, fungicides, furniture polish, gasoline, hair lotion, hair spray, herbicides, insect repellent, insecticides, kerosene, lead, lye, matches, metal polish, mothballs, nail polish, nail polish remover, paint, paint remover, pencils, pens, perfume, permanent wave lotion, pest control products (rat poison, ant poison, but sprays, etc., pHisoHex, photographic supplies (developers, fixatives, etc.), quicklime, rubbing alcohol, shoe polish, sleeping pills, soap, suntan lotion, tar turpentine, Tylenol, varnish, wax, Windex, and windshield wiper fluid.

Basically, anything labeled "keep out of reach of children" should also be kept out of our petsí reach. Cleaning fluids are particularly dangerous, as we often leave them open on the floor where they are easily knocked over by curious dogs or cats who then walk through them or inhale the fumes.

NICOTINE (CIGARETTE) POISONING IN PETS

Everyone knows the Surgeon Generalís warning about cigarette smoking but what about cigarette eating? Nicotine poisoning is a very real concern anywhere that a pet may find cigarettes, cigarette butts, chewing tobacco, or even nicotine gum or patches. Dogs, particularly puppies, tend to chew things up first and ask questions later. Cats may find a cigarette butt to be a nicely sized pouncing toy worthy of chewing.

Luckily for pets and small children, tobacco tastes terrible. Even chewing tobacco must have flavorings added to make it something worthy of oral enjoyment. Still, cigarettes have plenty of nicotine and even a small cigarette butt can mean serious illness or even death for a small pet.

The toxic dose for nicotine in pets is 20-100 mg. A cigarette contains 9-30 mg of nicotine depending on the type of cigarette; while a cigarette butt contains about 25% of the nicotine of the original cigarette despite its deceptively small amount of tobacco. (Smoking seems to concentrate some of the nicotine in the tail end of the cigarette.) Cigars can contain up to 40 mg. Chewing tobacco carries 6-8 mg per gram while the gum is 2-4 mg per piece and patches 8.3-114 mg. Smoking a cigarette yields only 0.5-2 mg of nicotine but eating one is a different ballgame as all of the nicotine becomes available for absorption into the body.

Some good news is that nicotine is not absorbed directly in the acid environment of the stomach; the nicotine must move past the stomach into the small intestine for absorption. One of the first things nicotine does in the body is stimulate the vomit center of the brain, thus inducing vomiting which may save the patientís life if there is more cigarette material in the stomach.

SYMPTOMS OF NICOTINE POISONING

Signs begin as quickly as one hour post-ingestion. Symptoms include:

* Tremors

* Auditory and Visual Hallucinations

* Excitement

* Vomiting and Diarrhea

* Twitching possibly progressing to Seizures

* Racing heart rate but slow heart rate with small doses

* High blood pressure but at higher doses there is a circulatory collapse

It is easy to confuse nicotine poisoning with other poisonings such as strychnine, chocolate, organophosphate insecticide, and certain molds. Hopefully, there will be cigarette materials in the vomit to give away the diagnosis.

Treatment

Washing out the stomach to get rid of any remaining cigarette materials is helpful but is likely to require sedation. Since most patients are agitated, this is often a good thing anyway. Seizures are treated with seizure suppressing drugs. It is tempting to use antacids to protect the stomach but as it is the stomach acid that is inhibiting the nicotine absorption, it is best to avoid this therapy. If the pet survives the first 4 hours, prognosis is felt to be good. Nicotine is inactivated by a healthy liver and its metabolites are excreted in urine. After 16 hours, the nicotine ingested should be gone.


The symptoms of shock are :

Pale discoloration of the mucous membranes (the inside of the mouth, the gums, the eyes etc.), weakness and a fast heart beat and pulse.

The dog may feel cold to the touch, especially the extremities like the feet and ears.

The consequence of shock is the same, whatever the original cause of the shock.

Several systems in the body loose their function and multiple organ failure may occur.

This will lead to a Ďshut downí of the entire body and death is always the result, if the shock is not treated immediately.


Treatment of shock is often in the form of intravenous fluids (a Ďdripí) and drugs together. Only your vet can do this treatment. It is of the utmost importance that you take your dog to the vet if you suspect that your dog may suffer from shock!

 

 

 

 

Questions? More Information?

Don't hesitate to call or email us.

Email Don & Laura at: Lipizzan@hollinet.com

1 - 831 - 623-0680

We are located in San Juan Bautista, California (Central Coast)

 

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Yes, Jacks can actually sleep soundly with their limbs sticking up or out. Strange, but true.


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